On APIs

What’s bizarre here is that these lines of code directly control real humans. The Uber API dispatches a human to drive from point A to point B. And the 99designs Tasks API dispatches a human to convert an image into a vector logo (black, white and color). Humans are on the verge of becoming literal cogs in a machine, completely anonymized behind an API. And the companies that control those APIs have strong incentives to drive down the cost of executing those API methods... As the software layer gets thicker, the gap between Below the API jobs and Above the API jobs widens. And economic incentives will push Above the API engineers to automate the jobs Below the API: self-driving cars and drone delivery are certainly on the way. The gap in training and social groups above and below could mean that new automation technology causes sudden, large-scale unemployment and a surge in demand for subsidized training. I hope we’re ready.

Peter Reinhardt, "Replacing Middle Management with APIs" - http://rein.pk/replacing-middle-management-with-apis/

On Extremism

Obama, after all, faces two overlapping but distinct challenges. One is an ideology: the totalitarian, even genocidal, vision espoused by ISIS. The second is a tactic: terrorism, which is available to people of all ideological stripes and which grows more dangerous as technology empowers individuals or groups to kill far more people far more quickly than they could have in ages past. Instead of assuming that these threats are the same, we should be debating the relative danger of each. By using ‘violent extremism’ rather than ‘radical Islam,’ Obama is staking out a position in that argument. It’s a position with which reasonable people can disagree. But cowardice has nothing to do with it.

Peter Beinhart, "What Does Obama Really Mean by 'Violent Extremism'?" - http://theatln.tc/1MPL7Wt

On Philosophy of Information

We used to think that power was about either the creation or the control of things, that it was about the means of production of goods. That’s what Marx thought. It was not about the production of experiences or services. Then society switched to a focus on power being expressed through the control of information. Once control of information is recognised as a source of power, then any powerful entity wants to control this information. Governments and empires all want to control information. What we’re seeing today is the very beginning of another switch, from power over things, to power over information, to power about the questions that shape the answers that give the information about things. If you take the view that semantic information is broadly speaking delivered as a question plus an answer, then those who control the questions shape the answers. That’s the new power we need to understand and manage properly today.

On Philosophy of Technology

What was also fascinating in this book [Philosophy of Technology: 5 Questions] was how little discussion there was in philosophy of technology circles about the internet –philosophers of technology completely missed the train on the internet. I haven’t seen any good books, or any books frankly, which engage with new media or blogs or social networking or privacy, let alone transparency or WikiLeaks from the philosophy of technology perspective. For me it is kind of sad that probably one of the most important issues of our day is neglected, with most philosophers of technology still arguing about the clock and the wheel. I don’t know if the internet isn’t too big a subject, and we need a separate independent field, something like philosophy of the internet. It boils down essentially to whether the internet is so unique as a technology that it even defies the conventions of philosophy of technology as a field, and whether it requires its own set of principles and assumptions.

On Philosophy

Just came across this Philosophy Bites podcast that compiled responses to the question, "Who is the most impressive philosopher you've met?" 38 minutes of philosophers' answers gives you a sense of recurring criteria, such as wit, breadth, clarity, incisiveness, generosity, and humility, and a few names are repeated such as John Rawls, Derek Parfit, Hilary Putnam, and even Derrida gets a mention.

On Phenomenology

Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss phenomenology, a style of philosophy developed by the German thinker Edmund Husserl in the first decades of the 20th century. Husserl’s initial insights underwent a radical transformation in the work of his student Martin Heidegger, and played a key role in the development of French philosophy at the hands of writers like Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Phenomenology has been a remarkably adaptable approach to philosophy. It has given its proponents a platform to expose and critique the basic assumptions of past philosophy, and to talk about everything from the foundations of geometry to the difference between fear and anxiety. It has also been instrumental in getting philosophy out of the seminar room and making it relevant to the lives people actually lead.

"Phenomenology" BBC Radio 4 In Our Time - http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04ykk4m

On Simulated Homelessness

SimCity players have discussed a variety of creative strategies for their virtual homelessness problem. They’ve suggested waiting for natural disasters like tornadoes to blow the vagrants away, bulldozing parks where they congregate, or creating such a woefully insufficient city infrastructure that the homeless would leave on their own. You can read all of these proposed final solutions in Matteo Bittanti’s How to Get Rid of Homelessness, ‘a 600-page epic split in two volumes documenting the so-called “homeless scandal” that affected 2013’s SimCity...’ For Bittanti, it’s impossible not to see the connections between the homeless problem in the Bay Area and the way it’s portrayed in SimCity. ‘That is, can we fix homelessness in SimCity, or because we haven’t fixed homelessness as a problem in real life, therefore we are bound to lose?’ Bittanti asked. ‘Is SimCity a reflection of what’s happening in reality, and therefore is very realistic, or is it a programming issue?’

"Is 'SimCity' Homelessness a Bug or a Feature?" - http://bit.ly/1872KnE

Hitchcock's Holocaust

In 1945, overseen by Alfred Hitchcock, a crack team of British film-makers went to Germany to document the horror of the concentration camps. Despite being hailed as a masterpiece, the film was never shown. Now, in a documentary called Night Will Fall, the full story of its creation and suppression is being told.

I Am Not Charlie Hebdo

Healthy societies, in other words, don’t suppress speech, but they do grant different standing to different sorts of people. Wise and considerate scholars are heard with high respect. Satirists are heard with bemused semirespect. Racists and anti-Semites are heard through a filter of opprobrium and disrespect. People who want to be heard attentively have to earn it through their conduct. The massacre at Charlie Hebdo should be an occasion to end speech codes. And it should remind us to be legally tolerant toward offensive voices, even as we are socially discriminating.

David Brooks, "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo" - http://nyti.ms/1yHtC90

On Meritocracy

The Latin deservire means ‘to devote oneself to the service of.’ In Vulgar Latin, that came to mean ‘to merit by service.’ We need to revive that notion of “democratic merit.” Democratic merit would provide access to education to those who serve the goals and contribute to the conditions of a thriving democracy. It does what our current meritocracy fails to do: creates an incentive system that emphasizes not just the possession of individual talent and related personal success but also the ability to collaborate and the commitment to building a better society for more people.

Lani Guinier, "The Tyranny of Meritocracy" - http://chronicle.com/article/The-Tyranny-of-Meritocracy/150983/

Women, Religion and Politics

A new issue of Feminist Theology on Women, Religion and Politics is out, which features articles from the last few years of research on religion and politics at the University of Newcastle. Dr. Kathleen McPhillips introduces the collection which can be downloaded here: http://fth.sagepub.com/content/current

The papers in this special edition were part of an international seminar that was held in Shoal Bay, Australia in December 2012. Participants from Britain, Canada, New Zealand and Australia gathered together for three days to workshop papers, discuss ideas and enjoy the beautiful coastal environment of northern New South Wales. The seminar was funded from a grant from the University of Newcastle, NSW for the research group Religion in Political Life, and was the first of two international semi- nars organized with Professor Lisa Isherwood at the University of Winchester. The second seminar was held in July 2013 at Winchester University and consisted of papers from European scholars. These essays will also be published in a future edition of Feminist Theology.
— Kathleen McPhillips, "Introduction: Women, Religion and Politics," Feminist Theology, vol 23 no 2, 2015.

On Religion and Media

Recall that the earliest products of the Gutenberg printing press were indulgences and, eventually, the Bible. Knowing what a medium does at its outset doesn’t define its history. Rather, it just indicates the energy with which it began. We may see the Internet as an openness, an availability, a potential divulgence of privacy and overexposure of self. But what if it all is just song and dance relative to its basic proposition, namely that none of us never ever get to know what is really going on? The digital is a new beginning; the digital is a place to hide. In between those two propositions is the work of many humanists, not least of which, perhaps most of all, is the student of religions.

Kathryn Lofton, "The Digital Is a Place to Hide," The Immanent Frame - http://blogs.ssrc.org/tif/2015/01/07/the-digital-is-a-place-to-hide/

On Academic Tricks

An editorial in the latest issue of the Journal of Management Studies (JMS) focused on the growing problem of unethical behaviour in academic publishing, particularly in light of some recent retractions in the field... But what the JMS editorial overlooks is a range of research practices that do not fall under the quasi-juridical category of ‘academic misconduct,’ but which pose just as much of a threat to standards of scholarship. We are talking here, of all those ‘tricks of the trade’ that scholars use to artificially increase their chances of publication in premier journals. These tricks include writing papers with senior academics, even though they may do little more than put their name on the byline. Some academics may prominently cite the work of senior editors in a submission to the journal they edit. Others establish multi-authorship cartels, whereby a group of scholars write one paper each but list the others as co-authors in order to double, treble or quadruple one’s output. Some academics steer the work of doctoral students towards their own research area to cultivate future collaborators who will be willing to share their data and do the lion’s share of the work.

"The Dark Arts of Academica - And Why Journals Must Do More to Tackle the Problem" - http://theconversation.com/the-dark-arts-of-academia-and-why-journals-must-do-more-to-tackle-the-problem-35796

NY Times Year in Pictures

A cradle left behind by Syrian Kurdish refugees along the Turkish-Syrian border near the embattled Syrian town of Kobani.

A cradle left behind by Syrian Kurdish refugees along the Turkish-Syrian border near the embattled Syrian town of Kobani.

A majority of the NY Times' pictures of the year depict war, suffering and a few reference prayer in the aftermath. Many bring human intimacy into focus, and the judges seemed intent on this theme of "closeness." What strikes me about this image is the way its emotion arises from austerity and absence. Photographed on 27 September, at this time of year it seemed a needed contrast to the typical nativity scene. Its hopefulness is not meant to be naive. Herod's Bethlehem massacre, exile and immigration to Egypt, and the ever precarious fragility of childhood all haunt the holy night.

-http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/12/28/sunday-review/2014-year-in-pictures.html

Non-Fiction Visual Cloud

Interesting visual cloud of non-fictionbooks: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/non-fiction-books-everyone-should-read-interactive/. One wonders at the visual representation of such a canon, which was generated from the Pulitzer Prize, Time, National Review, Times Literary Supplement, Good Reads, Library Thing, Guardian and other sources (bit.ly/KIB_BestNonFiction). It is interesting as well that most of what is filtered as philosophy is usually core reading in studies of religion.

On Anthologies of World Religions

At a time when religious faith is coming under intense scrutiny, ‘The Norton Anthology of World Religions’ is presenting a documentary history of six major faiths with sufficient editorial explanation to make their major texts intelligible across the barriers of time and space. This second volume in the series is a textual overview of the three monotheisms — Judaism, Christianity and Islam — from the early scriptures to contemporary writings. It is presented as a journey of exploration, but any reader who hopes to emerge from this literary excursion with a clear-cut understanding of these religions will be disappointed — and that is the great strength of this book.

Karen Armstrong, "Review of The Norton Anthology of World Religions: Volume II Judaism, Christianity, Islam" - http://nyti.ms/1wLbMzD

On Truth

Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the philosophy of truth. Pontius Pilate famously asked: what is truth? In the twentieth century, the nature of truth became a subject of particular interest to philosophers, but they preferred to ask a slightly different question: what does it mean to say of any particular statement that it is true? What is the difference between these two questions, and how useful is the second of them?

BBC Radio 4, In Our Time - http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04v59gz

On Banking

I venture to claim that no one understands the accounting of the Deutsche Bank. There’s an auditing company that’s familiar with the accounting system. But no single person can understand how those numbers are generated. It’s too complex. That’s why it’s like I’m demanding transparency about something that I can’t demand transparency about. It’s like the question about the existence of the God particle. I don’t know if it exists. Nor do I know how every last branch of this industry works. Nobody does.

- Rainer Voss, in Master of the Universe, a documentary directed by Marc Bauder, 2014